Journal of Erosion and Environmental Degradation (JEED)

ISSN 115-1943  VOLUME 6 (1) 2021

Published by:
Institute of Erosion Studies,
Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526 Owerri,
Imo State, Nigeria.



From the Director’s Desk

There is no gainsaying the fact that Land degradation has negatively affected a good number of the life-supporting land resource through soil erosiondesertification, salinization, acidification and others Deforestation, overgrazing and indeed a great many of inappropriate land-use practices in Sub-Saharan Africa account for the major land degradation problem as it results in severe soil erosion, extreme flood events, and loss of fertile soils. In Nigeria, the causes of gully formation can be largely attributed to human activities such as poor road designconstruction, abrupt termination of drains: areas, poor waste management practices, and unsustainable agricultural land use practices: The situation is substantially aggravated in  Southeastern part of the country with the crisis affecting all Nigerians. The gully erosion crisis in Nigeria has been ongoing and affects both urban and rural communities. It is an anthropogenically-induced disaster resulting in land degradation. It is estimated that Nigeria has about  3,000 gullies and that gullies and areas exposed to soil erosion in Southeastern Nigeria tripled from about 1.33% (1,021 km2) in 1976 to about 3.7% (2,820 km2) in 2006 making the region the most affected region in the country Given the high population density of the area coupled with a high concentration of urban and peri-urban settlements, the situation may quadruple in a shortest possible time/ The impact of this is clear: loss of prime farmlands and vegetation, loss of infrastructure including roads, houses, and other real estates. Isolation of villages, social conflicts, declining crop yield, distortion of landscape beauty, emotional ill-health, non-point source pollution, siltation in rivers leading to flooding, the declining population of soil biota, loss of lives and Increased sedimentation in waterways.

The premier University of Science and Technology: The Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria established The Institute of Erosion Studies in her avowed stance to tackle this environmental challenge being located within this highly eroding region. It is in this light that  The Nigerian government sought assistance from world bodies especially the  WORLDBANK., and this request resulted in the formation of the Nigeria Erosion and Watershed Management Project (NEWMAP), an eight (8) year multi-sectoral project aimed at addressing gully erosion in the Southern Nigeria and land degradation in Northern Nigeria.

In compliance with the philosophy, mission,  and vision of world environmental bodies and in tandem with a knowledge-driven strategy to solving human problems, The  Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria in her efforts towards driving excellence considered  The Journal of Erosion and  Environmental Degradation published by the Institute of Erosion Studies as a veritable tool. The JEED is, therefore, an intellectual contribution for generating data and information on soil erosion issues at different intensities especially in the areas of erodibility of soils, erosivity of water and wind, sustainable conservation practices, socioeconomic and environmental health implications.


The management of Journal of Erosion and Environmental Degradation (JEED), Institute of Erosion Studies (IES), Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria is grateful to the Vice-Chancellor of the premier university of Technology in Nigeria, Professor Francis Chukwuemeka EZE whose leadership has revived and innovated many latent areas in the university system including publications of research endeavours.  It is this spirit that led to the emergence of this edition of JEED.

We appreciate in no small measure The Nigerian Erosion and Watershed Management Project/World Bank, whose collaboration with FUTO has yielded many benefits via donations and installation of facilities for didactic purposes to the university. Special thanks to Dr Amos Abu, Task Team Leader (TTL) NEWMAP, and Dr Salisu Mohammed Dahiru, National project Coordinator (NPC) NEWMAP, World Bank Country Office Nigeria. The encouragement we received from NEWMAP immensely motivated this publication.

We are no less thankful to other collaborators such as NIMET, NESREA, Imo-Anambra River Basin Authority, Government Ministries and Parastatals for their contributions leading to the success of this edition.

We recognize efforts made by former Directors of the Institute in setting the pace for current realization.

The Journal of Erosion and Environmental Degradation is on course with unequalled rapidity in its quest for driving home excellence in publishing problem-solving research data and information for the welfare of mankind worldwide.


Editorial Committee/IES-FUTO

About the Journal

The Journal of Erosion and Environmental Degradation is a quarterly peer-reviewed multidisciplinary publication of the Institute of Erosion Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The journal aims to promote and advance study and research in all branches of environmental sciences and to disseminate such to help solve human problems. The mission of the journal is to provide a non-commercial platform for disseminating cross-cutting scientific research and theories across the academic disciplines in Environmental Science, Technology and Management. The journal seeks to facilitate greater communication between the scientific community of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria and the larger scientific community worldwide. To this end, JEED provides a platform for disseminating data and information on research conducted anywhere in the world. The journal is published strictly in the spirit of academic and scientific discourse and in support of the institutional mission and vision of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

Vice-Chancellor of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria:  PROFESSOR FRANCIS   CHUKWUEMEKA EZE

Editorial Committee

Professor Emmanuel Uzoma Onweremadu

  • Chairman

Professor P.C. Obasi

  • Agriculture

Professor C.C.Z. Akolisa

  • Physical Sciences

Professor I.J. Ogoke

  • Environment

Professor O.T. Ebiringa

  • Management

Engr. Professor (Mrs) G.N. Chukwudebe

  • Computer Services

Professor (Mrs) N.N. Oti

  • Postgraduate Studies

Professor A.N. Amadi

  • Health

Professor P.U. Agbasi

  • Health

Engr. Professor J.C Ezeh

  • Engineering

Professor J.N. Ogbulie

  • Life Sciences

Dr A.I. Opara

  • Physical Sciences

Editorial Advisers


Professor F. C. Eze



Professor C. C. Asiabaka



Professor C. C. Eze



Professor J. D. Njoku



Professor E. N. Ejike



Professor Charles Igwe



Professor Martin Onuh



Professor T. O. C. Chineke



Professor M. A. N. Anikwe



Professor Ivara Esu



Dr. H. C. Nwankwoala



Prof. V. O. Chude

F.A.O. Rep


Professor Christine Cardoso



Professor Antonio Jose Teixeira



Professor Akhter Alam


Note to Authors

Papers submitted to the Journal must be results of original research carried out by the author(s). Review articles may be accepted for publication if they highlight solutions to existing problems using the body of knowledge available. The official language of the Journal is English. Papers in other languages must be translated into English.

Submission of Papers: 

Contributors to the Journal should submit soft copies of each paper to be considered for publication. Submissions must be accompanied by a handling charge of N2000.00 or its equivalent in USD. Papers sent without the handling charge may not be processed. Papers considered publishable would be subject to payment of page charges of N10,000. Extra pages will attract additional cost. All manuscripts should be sent to:

Institute of Erosion Studies,
Federal University of Technology,
PMB 1526 Owerri,
Imo State, Nigeria




Copies of the journal can be obtained by individuals and corporate bodies in Nigeria and abroad by paying the following subscription fees:

Individuals: Nigeria (N1000.00); Africa (USD50.00); Outside Africa (USD100.00)

Corporate Bodies: (N2,000.00); Outside Africa (USD150.00)